Sunday, March 5, 2017

Bus Topology

Bus topology is simplest form of network topology in which all the network devices are connected to single cable known as bus or backbone. The connection is done with the help of interface connectors. Each and every device in this network communicates with each other using the Bus.

Bus topology is also referred as line topology. The bus topology is usually used in small, simple or temporary networks. If the large number of devices are added in the network implementing the bus topology, there may arise the performance issues which may lead to the network shutdown in case of cable failure.

When one node needs to communicate or send a message to another node in the network, it sends a broadcast message on the network which will be received by all the nodes in the network, but the one with the address that matches the one encoded in the message (actual recipient) accepts and processes the message while all other nodes rejects it.

Transmission media for Bus LANs:

One can use the following transmission media for the bus LANs:

1.    Twisted pair cable
2.    Baseband co-axial cable
3.    Broadband co-axial cable
4.    Optical fibre

Advantages of the Bus Topology:

1.    Bus topology is simple, reliable, and easy to install and manage.
2.    The cabling cost is less as the bus topology requires the least amount of cable to connect the computers.
3.    Implementation cost of bus topology is very low.
4.    The expansion is easy by and done by joining two cables with a BNC barrel connector.
5.    If one node fails in the network, all other nodes can still communicate with each other.

Disadvantages of the Bus Topology:

1.    The main drawback of bus topology is that only one computer can transmit data at one time, all other systems in the network must wait for their turn to transmit the data. Also, there is no co-ordination between the computers for reservation of transmitting time slot.
2.    The next major drawback is dependency on central cable. It the main cable breaks or encounters some issue, it leads to breakdown on whole network.
3.    Bus topology requires proper termination at both ends, failing so leads to bouncing back of signals.
4.    Only suitable for few computers in a network. If used in large network, there will be performance and stability issues.
5.    It is difficult to detect and troubleshoot the fault at individual node in the network.

6.    Security issues also arise since all the computers receive the signals of the other recipients.
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