Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Ring Topology

A ring topology is a multipoint data communication network where all the nodes (workstations) are interconnected in series to form a closed loop or circle. Each node in the ring topology is joined by point-to-point links to two other stations on either side, (the transmitter of one and receiver of the other).

The message in ring topology flow around in one direction. There is no termination because there is no end to the ring. Each packet is sent around the ring until it reaches its final destination. Sending and receiving of data takes place with the help of Token.

Token is a short message which is passed around the ring until a computer wishes to send information to another computer. That computer modifies the token, adds an electronic address and data and sends it around the ring. Each computer in a ring receives the token and the information and passes them to the next computer until either the electronic address matches the address of a computer or the token returns to its origin. The receiving computer returns a message to the originator indicating that the message has been received. The sending computer then creates another token and begins transmitting. The token circulates until a station is ready to send and capture the token. Faster networks circulate several tokens at once.

Functions of a ring:

A ring can operate as a communication network if it s performs the following three functions:

1.    Data insertion
2.    Data reception
3.    Data removal

Advantages of the Ring Topology:

1.    This topology is very organized since data flow/traffic flows in only one direction and at very high speed.
2.    Unidirectional data flow reduces the chances of collision in the network.
3.    No network server requirement for controlling the connectivity between the workstations.
4.    Gives better performance than Bus topology even on high network load.
5.    Addition of new workstation is easy and does not impact performance of the network.
6.    Installation and troubleshooting of network is also very  easy.

Disadvantages of the Ring Topology:

1.  Since every token and information passes through all the workstations between the source and destination, so it makes the topology slower than star topology.
2.    Breakdown of on workstation affects the entire network.
3.   This topology is costly to implement due to high hardware cost of network cards than Ethernet cards.
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